Imagining the Possibilities: Improving the Teaching of Writing through Teacher-Led Inquiry by Jessica Singer Early

After reading this week’s article, there were a lot of new ideas that were brought to my attention about new methods of teaching writing. Jessica Singer Early who is an Associate Professor of English Education at Arizona State University brings to our attention the idea of “Teacher-Led Inquiry”. There is an obvious change in writing that goes beyond the classroom. This generation of students are different from one another and have a more diverse voice than ever. These students are in a classroom where the diversity is higher and are not being taught to their level. Instead, they are the ones being forced to learn standard and common core tests in order to develop their writing. I have always believed there is a better way of teaching writing in the classroom for students who have various forms of learning.

Early continues on to say, “We must find ways to give students opportunities to learn and adapt to different genres of writing, especially those that may have an impact on their later lives” (pg 12). School has given students the impression that there should only be one way of teaching and one way of learning. From my personal experience, the subject of math is a good example. Growing up, my ability to break down math in order to understand it, was a skill I did not have. I never had a teacher who was able to adjust the lesson in order to accommodate the way I learned. My senior year of high school, I failed the math section of the HSPA, which was the New Jersey state test I needed to pass in order to graduate. My teacher who taught the students who failed the math section taught the overall subject of the math but was able to individually teach us how to solve problems so we could understand. Each one of us grasped the material differently. The same rules apply to what Early is speaking about in this article. There needs to be an opportunity for students to learn based on their individual selves.

Another point that was made in the article was giving students a greater purpose for writing that will eventually go beyond the classroom. When a student has a particular audience to write for that they can also relate to, their writing develops. “Initially, we talked about how this kind of writing invites students to identify a real audience beyond the classroom teacher, to have empathy and understanding for that audience, and to attempt to reach the audience through appropriate content, purpose, and conventions (Gallagher, 2011). By doing this, students will have the teachings of writing that can connect to real-world situations that go beyond the classroom.

However, not everything falls on the student. The teacher, who is the main subject of this article, has to be able to recraft the teaching methods in the classroom. The example of Debra, an eighth-grade English teacher, was given in this article. She decided to create an after-school writing group for middle school students in order to support their writing that will go beyond the classroom. This is an important part of the article because Debra decided to take matters into her own hands and created a safe space for these kids. Safe spaces are used today for kids to be able to be themselves and feel as if they can make a difference.

If encouraged the correct way, they can make a difference. “By expanding the curriculum to include college-and career-ready writing opportunities, these teachers gave students opportunities to examine and explore how diverse forms of writing function in the world, who deems these forms of writing important, and why and to whom these genres matter in academic, professional, and civic settings (Early, pg 14). It was the teachers who gave these students the opportunity to develop their writing beyond the classroom. Developed writing does fall on the shoulders of the teacher, but if we have more teachers who are willing to change writing teachings, then the teacher inquiry will work out for the better.

My haiku

Scent of soppy wild grasses

The gloomy leaves reach out for spring

Colorful centipede kisses the dew

湿草之臭

木叶郁郁向春

百足饮露

 

Splash of water and ink

The misty hills float in the distance

Cry of blood —— cuckoo-koo

沒骨浅绛

空山遥遥隐于雾

杜鹃泣血

Working with Audio???

I think I’m funny~

Anyway, this week we covered an almost confusing number of different subjects. So, please bear with me as I try to get wandering, wondering thoughts together ^.^

Empathy or Lack Thereof

One of this week’s topics was that of “empathy games”. According to this article by Eric Bartelson, empathy games are ones that confront players with “real human issues…things like depression, bullying, terminal illness, or suicide”. Through playing these games and “experiencing” these issues “first-hand”, players, ideally, develop a more complex understanding of the issue and so are able thereto forth to empathize better with people going though similar issues IRL.

At least, that’s theory.

Many game designers themselves are skeptical/critical of the idea that empathy can be developed to such an extent via game-play. More, many game designers seem that empathy is a skill every game should be striving to develop and so labeling any specific set of games as “empathy games” is redundant. In this way, and as Bartelson states, the divide seems to be over whether or not empathy is “a genre or a game mechanic”. Which, to me, is an interesting division and, to be honest, since I’m not someone who plays very many games, I’m not sure what side of the divide I fall on.

Certainly, I believe that a game alone cannot develop or refine one’s own empathy. That’s the reverse of the “video games incite violence” argument–spoiler they don’t and a government bogging down discussions about any particular reforms to even entertain the notion is grossly irresponsible and tbfh stalling but I digress…>.>. Like I mentioned in our Twitter chat on Tuesday night, you can have the best message in the world in your game but if players can’t connect that message to something on the outside, if there’s no transfer then I’m not sure how it helps facilitate genuine empathy.

See, I believe designers can direct their messages so that they are received within IRL context. But, I also believe:

My line of thinking seems to fall in line with Simon Parkin’s thoughts in this article in which the disconnect between creator intent and game design is discussed. Basically, Parkin reiterates what I just said: a game with a good idea but a bad follow-through is kind of a problem. More, that equation can create a problem. Parkin references a study in which the game Spent–an online game about surviving poverty–and its effects are researched. What the study found was that it actually made people, even those who sympathized with the poor prior to playing the game, empathize less with poor people. Essentially, the game made people believe poof people had more choices than they actually do in reality. Colleen Macklin, a game designer cited in this article, summarizes the phenomenon, “In a game you have complete agency, but in some life situations, people have no choice. If a game is trying to create empathy in this way, it can back-fire spectacularly.”

When creating a game you hope will instill a deeper sense of empathy, intent doesn’t seem to be enough. More, you have to be careful you’re not “game-ifying” a real situation too much or else you may alter the reality of it and so muddle/not accurately portray your message.

That said, a game I think “game-ified” an IRL situation just right is Bad News. I freakin’ loved this game.

In Bad News, players become the propagators and perpetuators of “fake news” online. “Drop all pretense of ethics and choose the path that builds your persona as an unscrupulous media magnate” the game encourages. The goal of this game is to gain as main “followers” as you can through establishing fake credibility online (mostly via Twitter). The other goal, in my opinion, is to be as obnoxious as you possibly can i.e channel Trump >.>..

I had a blast:

2018-03-20

I’ll admit, at first I was trying to be a good person and pick the “ethical” choices but once I realized that was losing me followers (and not the object of the game) I just went full on obnoxious. Spread an anti-vaxxer conspiracy theory??? Sure. Smear a legit news agency cause they had the audacity to report on something bad I actually did??? Why the hell not??

What can I say?

I got into it.

Anyway, fun aside, I do think this game illustrates the point it’s trying to make pretty clearly. Though, if you don’t have the cultural context–say you live in a 1-party state or your country doesn’t have access to much technology or internet–I don’t know how well the message would stick because it’s social commentary, in a way, right? I get that this game is trying to make a point of how fake news is made and propagated but I also think it’s trying to show just how easy it is to slip into that mindset/head-space where you’re more interested in sensationalizing issues, “making headlines”, and in gaining followers than in making ethical or responsible decisions. Even if that wasn’t an objective by design, this game did a damn fine job of bringing it to attention.

But, what do you think? More, after playing a so-called “empathy game”,  how do you feel?

Amping Things Up

Switching gears this week, we also began discussing sound as a means for storytelling.

Now, I have to admit I’m not super enthused for this shift in focus. Sound is not really my medium. Don’t get me wrong, I love my podcasts–listening to them while I’m doing my make-up in the morning–and I’d probably kill someone if I couldn’t listen to my music in the car but I’m not really into or interested in playing around with sound myself. The thought just doesn’t inspire the same excitement as talking about art or Elit.

That said, I’m open to learning more about how to use sound to tell a good story. I’m so used to it being background noise, I think it’ll be cool to explore it as its own kind of art and story.

For this week’s Make, I did attempt to explore sound as a means for telling a story. Check it:

 https://soundcloud.com/kelli-hayes-365566554/frustration-1

It’s not my best work but I’m happy enough with how it turned out. I’m a lot more rusty with Audacity than I thought I’d be but this video helped me out a lot. (I also totally forgot how to upload from Audacity to Soundcloud.)

Anyway, technical issues aside, the idea behind my little story here was inspired by the incessant clacking of my own keyboard. Once I decided I wanted that to be my background sound, I was able to establish the rest of the story.

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I added some notes in the margins once I found the sounds I wanted on freesound~

Really, my story is just a snippet of what it’s like to live online–closing yourself away to open up elsewhere, the incessant typing that gets increasing more frustrated as your message notifications keeps pinging, and the frustrated sigh that another annoying ping swallows up. Don’t get me wrong, I love the life digital means affords me but it can be freakin’ annoying sometimes~

2018-03-23

My view while workin’ on those bars~

My Make

Did you get that message??? Or, could it use some work?? Let me know and maybe you’ll get a ping-back 😉

****

Links

Daily Digital Alchemies

This Week’s Spells:

*I love this throwback DDA ^.^ The book spine poetry was one of my face DDAs from the first time around. I enjoy combining my love of books with my burgeoning love of new new digital media. This DDA also gets me to “remix” real life, removing the context from my books and placing them in a new one. I love it~

*As for this DDA, I decided to take a close-up shot of my fave pinky highlighter (J. Cat Beauty’s You Glow Girl highlighter in the shade Bella Rose for any fellow make-up junkies ^.^). It looks like a cotton-candy floss universe, doesn’t it? ❤

Twit 1 & Twit 2

Goodies

*I chose to look at the game our friends in Egypt, Ayah and Manar, are currently in the process of developing. Their game is designed to teach/inform players about illiteracy and how it affects the everyday lives of people and the choices they are able to make. Ayah and Manar talk about their game here and have a prototype you can play here. So far, I really like the project and thinks it’s shaping up to be a real learning tool. I talk more about what I think is effective so far in my comments on the posts so I highly recommend you check those out and, of course, the good work Ayah and Manar are doing!!

A mini-biography of Yosa Buson

Yosa Buson (1716-1784) was born in a wealthy family but he chose to leave in pursue of art. He apprenticed to several haiku masters and he was also greatly influenced by Chinese poems. His experimental poems have been called “Chinese poems in Japanese,” and two of them contain passages in Chinese. He was a master in both haiku and haiga. A very important event in his life was that he spent three years (1754–57) in Yosa, Tango province, a region famous for its scenic beauty. His style is ornate and sensuous, rich in visual detail.

Reference: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Buson

Developing Students’ Critical Literacy: Exploring Identify Construction in Young Adult Fiction by Thomas W. Bean and Karen Moni

Although this article was written almost twenty years ago, authors Thomas W. Bean and Karen Moni discuss many dilemmas that teenagers go through at home and socially that conflicts with their education that relates to teenagers today. Specifically, teenagers who live in urban areas and surrounded by poverty. The coined term, “contemporary young adult literature” is described as a genre for readers between the ages of 12 and 20. It offers an escape for young adults and a window of opportunity to relate to fictional characters going through similar issues. This article talks about the reality that if a teenager who has to work for their family in order to survive and then goes to school surrounded by books and lessons that does not help with their issues, they are not going to be focused and they will be unmotivated.

“Adolescent readers view characters in young adult novels as living and wrestling with real problems close to their own life experiences as teens” (Bean & Rigoni, 2001, pg 638). It is important to understand that just like adults need an escape from their stress of work and life itself, there are young adults and teenagers who are going through just as much. Using novels that relate to them and that are written in first-person is a great way for these students to learn how to tackle life problems. Another term that was brought to my attention in this article was “critical literacy”. Bean and Moni argue that using critical learning in school empowers students. It allows them to ask the question of, “what choices have been made in the creation of the text” (Janks & Ivanic, 1992). Most of the time, we use novels that cannot relate to them and therefore, they lose interest. However, if you have critical literacy used in the classroom while reading young adult fiction novels, that changes students’ educational process.

In the article, Bean and Moni discuss how the world around us is swallowed by the flow of media, images, advertising, commercials and it influences the making of one’s identity. The last term that was mentioned in this article that I found to be very important was “Enlightenment Views”; which is defined as, “Enlightenment views of identity development were based on somewhat fixed social structures and actions according to class differences” (Mansfield, 2000, pg 640). However, this was challenged by Foucault in 1980 saying, “the Enlightenment View of the rugged individual and argued that power was a driving force in shaping identity” (pg 640). There are two sides developed about whether or not the Enlightenment View heavily influences young adults. Power is something that these teenagers living in urban areas do not see in media nor do they experience it. It is difficult to think they have some sort of power in this society when everything around them shows them in a negative way. Once the students became aware of their society’s cultural influences, they realized more that their identity is blurred by unstable employment, communities, and institutions that do not care about them.

The representation of families and life in the 1950s and the 1960s of a loving, two-parent, white family household with a steady income that is shown on television is a revelation of how the rest of the world is unattached. A teenager who is a person of color living in an urban area, that is taking care of themselves and balancing school, does not find identity in the midst of that. The way critical literacy ties into everything allows the reader to go beyond the usual response questions and learn from the character’s mistakes and apply it to their own life. Critical literacy offers a foundation and framework for these students. I believe that if we continue to use young adult fiction in school, students will be able to break the cycle of not finding their own identity and being lost in the sea of society.

Summary & Response of “The big fight over Coexist”

The post named “The big fight over Coexist” written by Phil Edwards mainly discusses the history of the logo “Coexist” and the development of its meanings. “The big fight over Coexist” refers to the fight over its ownership and its real implications. The logo was invented by a Polish artist Piotr Mlodozeniec in 2000, consisting of three religion symbols. It soon became popular on the Internet. Since 2005, some changes have been made to modify this logo and “Coexist” starts to have commercial profit. At first this logo was designed to participate in a contest, later it was used to make money, but now it has deeper ethical denotation on a worldwide scale.

After reading this post, I come to realize that the signified can be comprehended from diverse dimensions. Since the world is changing rapidly, the cultural context also differs in different time periods. With the trend of globalization,  different cultures and social groups have to learn to coexist with one another harmoniously. The big fight happens not only over the logo “Coexist”, but also happens over human existence.

My blogger brand

Color: My brand consists of red, purple and orange, which leaves the reader an impression of romance and adventure.

Contrast: The color of the brand and the white background have strong contrast.

Repetition: This is a drawing of a piece of red cloud, which coincides with my blog name.

Others: The end of the cloud stretches down, indicating that it comes from the earth, specifically, comes from people’s imagination. This is another repetition with my blog introduction.

Why We Always Playin’????

80S Horror GIF - Find & Share on GIPHY

The Name of the Game

This week, we said до свидания to digital art and began our exploration of games and gaming. To be honest, not a big topic of interest to me. Shocking, I know.

Anyway, to start off our discussion on the topic in class, Marissa led a round robin where each of us described a game, digital if we could or not, we liked to the class. We went in a circle and the person who followed you in the circle would tweet out the game the person ahead of them described along with an interesting detail about it if they could. I was behind Patrice and ahead of Vanessa~

Patrice doesn’t really play many games so she didn’t have much to share about them, but here’s what I tweeted out about what she did say:

Like many of us, Patrice has a game on her phone (Candy Crush) she’ll play when she’s bored (sometimes get sucked into for too long if she lets herself something all of us seem guilty of….) but other than that, she’s more familiar with traditional board games like Trouble.

Again, this seems to be the rule not the exception for almost all of us. I don’t play games on my phone as much as I used to but I was pretty competitive and sucked into them at the height of my interaction. My poisons of choice were called BookwormNeko Atsume and High School Story (later Hollywood University when the creators expanded their enterprise). The first game was a wordplay game where you would get a random assortment of letters and have to create words from them in order to gain points. But, some of the letters were “on fire” and if they reached the bottom of the screen before you were able to make a word, the “library” would burn and you’d lose.

As for the other games, they had longer term objectives. You had to collect fish in Neko Atsume which would be left by cats after you fed them or gave them a toy to play with. These fish were used to pay for better food and toys which would attract more cats who would leave more fish and also mementos (which you couldn’t actually do anything with so I’m not sure why they mattered now???) And in the school games, you essentially created a little high school or university that you could populate with different kinds of students (jocks, nerds, preps, slackers, skaters, goths, cheerleaders, etc). There was a main cast of characters that moved the game’s objectives (main quests and side quests) along and, usually, at the completion of a quest you’d get to add one of those characters to your school. There were also exclusive outfits and buildings and decorations you could “win” or buy. It was kind of like a really low-key version of Sims (which was an online game many, like myself, are pretty familiar with).

All this said, the game I actually chose to describe was a card game perhaps most known for its infamy: Cards Against Humanity. Vanessa captured how I summed the game up pretty well:

Basically, Cards Against Humanity is Apples to Apples for adults~

I’m realizing, now, though this description does nothing for anyone who doesn’t know what Apples to Apples is. So, let me break it down a bit more.

Cards Against Humanity is a card game in which you get a set of topic cards with prompts (coloured black with white writing) and another set of cards with a wide array of captions on them that could be used to respond to/answer the prompt cards (these are coloured white with black type). Usually, you play this game in a group of 3-4 or more. Minimum 3 players. Every player gets 7 white cards. The first player to get 7 black cards wins. Though, arguably, the real objective of this game is to get the biggest laugh or to garner the largest reaction with your card combo.

See, these cards don’t have your usual array of prompts or responses. No. At best, you could describe them as outlandish or odd and at worst, horribly, terribly offensive. If you have a delicate system or if your sensibilities are easily offended, this is most decidedly not the game for you. My friends and I love it.

If you’re curious about exactly what kind of subject matter Cards Against Humanity dabbles with, I’d suggest playing a few rounds online. As far as I know, all the cards you play with online are actually in one of the many decks. (In case you didn’t know, the game has many decks and many more expansion packs with all different kinds of themes and nonsense. For example, my friends and I usually play with the bigger, blacker deck ^.^

cards-against-humanity-bigger-blacker-box-9002270-0-1499647585000

There are even unofficial expansion packs like Crabs Adjust Humidity which are pretty great as well and the main company doesn’t care that these exist. Another great thing about this game is the company itself which has the same sense of humor expressed in the game. Like, one year they sold literal b*llshit on Black Friday. Arguably, stunts like that along with the creators’ general nihilistic and apathetic attitude–which appeals greatly to its disillusioned young adult audience–have helped propel this game into popularity.)

So, yeah, I just went off on a tangent.

Kanye West Shrug GIF - Find & Share on GIPHY

Anyway, let’s see if I can get back to the subject at hand….

While, surprisingly to me, not everyone knew about Cards Against Humanity, most of the class was familiar enough with it. Many of us have played it before or seen it online. Stephanie even referred to it a drinking game…

Anyway, other than more traditional board games like Trouble or card games like Cards Against Humanity, the only other kind of game most of us seemed familiar with was Sims. 

Sookie Stackhouse GIF - Find & Share on GIPHY

(For anyone who doesn’t know, Sims is a collection of simulated computer/console games that, well, simulate life. You can essentially live out an entire life through a simulated character or collection of characters. There are many version and expansions of this game along with a large community of creators who make mods you can download–with varying degrees of success and implementation–to use in the game.)

Almost all of us could say we lost hours of our lives playing Sims.

Many of us bought the expansion packs. Some of us played on our computers others on consoles. Most of us didn’t connect with any of the community features–we liked to play on our own. Some of us like myself used cheats in game #boolproptestingcheatsenabledtrueforlife~ Point is, this was a digital game many of us knew.

I think only about 2 of us were video gamers, though most of us knew some of the bigger games like World of Warcraft or League of Legends (my best friend made it to Platinum 3 in League maining Sora and sometimes Jinxx–and I actually know what this means because I wrote a short research paper on online gaming discourse a few years back which might now come in handy). It seemed like there was little interest amongst our group in participating too much with these games. Though, the topic of E-sports and competitive online gaming did draw some more intrigue.

My only knowledge of anything like an online gaming community comes from my participation with Neopets. I haven’t played in a while but I used to go on the site ever day and play games to earn Neocoins I could use to buy different items for my Neopets (of which there were many species and of which I only had 2) or for my “home”. Every year, there was also a site-wide gaming event called the Altador Cup. You chose to play for one of 16-17 teams which each represented one of the “world’s” many lands. I always played for the Darigan Citadel and did pretty well, usually earning enough points playing the soccer-style game to buy some top-tier prizes from the prize shop at the end of the month-long event. I even got an “All Star” trophy one year that would be displayed on my user look-up.

Anyway, that’s about the depth of my knowledge on online gaming~

So, being that not many of us are all that familiar with digital games, I think this unit will be an interesting and possibly enlightening learning experience for all of us~

Why Do We Play So Much???

Why The Fuck You Lying GIF - Find & Share on GIPHY

What stemmed from our conversation on games was another discussion about the purpose of games. Many of us described using games, especially those on our phones, as a way to counteract or subvert boredom. Some of us described playing a game as just a way to pass time. For a few of us, playing games was more about winning them.

But, is there a greater purpose to playing games and to games themselves?

This is something explored by Radiolab in one of their podcasts about games. In the show, the hosts talk about games and their purposes from many different angles. Far too many to address in this one post. But, one of the most interesting parts of this discussion for me was when they began talking games as being a way to both explore/express the imagination–all that could be possible and a way to explore bigger ideas like fairness. I’ve never heard games described this way until now. Though, this idea does touch upon something I believe Katherine mentioned in class–that though we may describe games and our interactions with them as “mindless”, they aren’t really. We’re still engaging in a stimulating activity whether we acknowledge it or not. More, that stimulation is not stimulation for its own sake. Many games, especially, now provide these outlet for users to exercise creative thought processes they otherwise may not be able to. Theory holds that the skills developed in-game transfer over into other areas of life outside the game, improving skills such as multi-tasking or communication.

Another interesting topic the podcast touched on and that I had never heard of before was that of the “novelty” of games. No, not that novelty. But, this idea that whenever you play most games checkers excluded there comes a point in the game where you initiate an action or make a move that has never been made before. That is the novelty. In chess, this occurs once you leave the “book” which is an online archive of all the moves in chess games ever made which I have some thoughts on but that’s another story.... It’s the play that you decide to make that has never been decided in game in same circumstances. It’s the manifestation of your imagination but also the maneuver that shows you know the name of the game (or else it couldn’t be made). This phenomenon is not exclusive to chess, though perhaps with the existence of the “book”, it is easier to acknowledge and document.

To me, I guess, the novelty is the magic of games. It’s what games are all about. They give you these moments that will never occur again and ask you to make a choice, leave a mark. Do something different. Imagine. Create. Play. I think all games minus checkers have the potential to do this and that is why they are important.

What about you?

You play?

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Links

Daily Digital Alchemies

*DDAs this Week:

I made a QR code for my blog using, shockingly enough, a charcoal drawing of a skull I did about a year ago~ What do you think? Spookily perfect for me, yeah?

As for this DDA, I wrote a little diddy that’s all very my style. To be honest, I clicked through hand after hand of cards the site dealt before I came across one that inspired me. Then, I added some slashing red and black lines in Paint and voila~

This was a really cool DDA and I kind of wish we went over this while we were talking about gifs. I think this would have been a really simple demonstration of early gifdom (i.e the really early precursor to online gifs).

 My personal favourite for obvious reasons ^.^~

Twit 1 & Twit 2

Giphy

Goodies

*Speaking of games and fun alchemy, this was a really fun and cool game we played this week in class. I didn’t get to talk about it in the main body of this post but I did enjoy this game and found myself growing oddly competitive??? And, maybe it’s the Slytherin in me, but I actually looked up cheats (which, were surprising to me in that they even existed???) to make some of the things I wanted to in this little alchemy lab game. Judge me if you will but once I was able to find a way to make all the little objects I wanted to, I was having a lot of fun~

*As for fun podcasts that I love, I think how “fun” they are depends entirely upon your definition of the word. I’ve been a loyal Murderino for a while now so I have to recommend My Favorite Murder. It’s a podcast all about, you guessed it, murder–the hosts “favorite” murders that week. Each show explores two different murders and the circumstances around the crimes. And, despite the heavy subject matter, the hosts do a phenomenal job of adding tasteful brevity throughout the show. For any true crime fan like myself, it’s a must-listen.

Another great podcast is Last Podcast on the Left. Now, this is a highly inappropriate approach to discussing murders, true crime, and conspiracy theories but it is Great. The hosts have such a witty, conversational banter that almost seems entirely improv-ed because it comes so naturally. The one guy provides some hysterical voice acting as well. Highly recommend you listen to this show in a room away from anyone who would be offended by Cards Against Humanity. This show makes the game seem tame~

~Till Next Time~

Analysis of 8 principles of logo design

Image result for logo

https://www.google.com/search?q=logo&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiL5tvC3eHZAhVJ61MKHVFYBL4Q_AUICigB&biw=1280&bih=615#imgrc=e-Lu3V8w4nkpdM:
  1. Alignment: The image and the words are placed in the middle of the logo so that the audience may feel comfortable when looking at it. Also, neat alignment makes it easier to read. 
  2. Hierarchy: The image of the warrior is the biggest and is placed higher than the words. The word “Spartan” is bigger and placed higher than “Fitness”. When I read this logo, I see firstly the Spartan warrior, then the word “Spartan”, then “Fitness”. Therefore my impression to this institution will be like this: It is a fitness club which can help me become as strong as a Spartan warrior, which was the best in the Greek world. 
  3. Contrast: This logo consists of red, black and white, which catch the reader’s attention immediately. Red image and black words are very prominent on white background. 
  4. Repetition: The style of this logo is consistent. The logo, the font and the colors are all very simple. Simplicity also corresponds with the Spartan way of life. These signifiers try to convey the principle of this fitness club: your fitness is our only goal. 
  5. Proximity: The warrior image, “Spartan” and “Fitness” are closely related to each other. 
  6. Balance: This logo is asymmetrical. There is only one warrior facing left. Maybe it wants to emphasize “the best”, “No. 1” so one warrior is enough. 
  7. Color: White means simplicity, red means energy, strength, bravery and honor, black means elegant and efficiency. These impressions are positive for a fitness club and will attract customers. 
  8. Space: There is much blank space on this logo. Again, it creates a sense of simplicity and tidiness.